Jumat, 12 Maret 2010

Business Art Crafts: Position and Potential Present by Timbul Raharjo, DR.

In the handicraft business world, often grouped into an activity often associated forms and Small Medium Business (SMEs). The shape of this business, the bulk of a home industry in the community livelihood as artisans, as a community economic activities. In developing countries both in Indonesia and in other similar countries, small businesses often associated with economic problems and social. The level of poverty, especially the large number of unemployed low skilled, the distribution of income inequality, uneven development between urban and rural, and so forth. It is expected that this SME sector, can provide solution and contribute to solving those problems. Off may or may not resolve the issue with regard to certain matters in the business units that were fragile to changes and developments, particularly the country's security level is less easily ravaged craft businesses and even other businesses such as tourism. Thus, the business climate is influenced by economic factors, social and political, and also influenced by the legal system in the country.
Thanks to the increase of fuel oil a few months ago to make the world a little business experience instability. This sparked turmoil in the society resulting from participating rising some basic needs. Not just pieces of art craft is expected to grow and develop as one of this country supplier foreign exchange, also experienced a decline. This is due to rising cost of production account, the price of supporting the needs of the market sold the bandwagon ride. Price to reproduce material craft even more expensive than the main ingredient. Raw materials used in the manufacture of basic materials industry moves instead of static, while prices increased following the attendant international market conditions. Even did not rule out the main material prices cheaper than aides materials. Thus, the condition occurs is the inability to craft an attempt to do balancing between production cost and selling handicrafts to be vulnerable to deterioration in productivity. Some aspects that affect the emergence of imbalances that, in addition to rising material prices, is also on the labor conditions also affected due to rising prices of basic daily needs. Therefore occur between the appropriate assessment and did not deserve according with regional role minimum wage in a region. In fact is very complicated in times of growing market fluctuations today.
Like forward hit back hit, existing business units always rely on manual labor workers, but with a low skill level makes the need for cost equalization of time-consuming, worker, and cost. Thus to obtain the direct labor on in a perceived lack of production units, while the cost of energy into the cause of instability. In this, the world of international trade is the concept of New International Division of Labor of a concept that can benefit from all parties both labor, management and intermediaries and consumers. Of course this is a complicated, not to mention plus the affairs that are administration of government agencies, tax, business license, and others, a scourge for our handicraft maker. Pressure from above and from below would be difficult when should dial with the consumers who have the market authority. It's like that commercial law, handicraft buyers want a cheap price, so producers wanted a high price for profit. On the other hand the impact of rising fuel with high production costs, while the price is equal to the price last year to problem also, when to raise the selling price. If not, then the buyer will easily offer a crafts that job to others. The other side will be happy to accept a job which actually filled with risk, consideration, they generally like getting plenty of orders with small margins, and even expected as a step free and ridiculous.

A. Yogyakarta is Creative city
Growth in Yogyakarta handicraft arts especially, has tremendous movement. Movement was in line with the growth of the creativity of the craftsmen of Yogyakarta. In areas that have well-educated human resources, able to beat nature into art products with unique crafts of its own. The creativity that caused by rampant demand and tighter competition. Demands creativity becomes very important in pursuing and fostering the arts business craft skills in a global world. Of therein creativity innovation, expansion, courage and other investments into the key.
As a cultural tourism destination, this city seemed to be the new meteor in the craft business world after Bali. Even more likely Yogyakarta as one of the purposes of art buyers and furniture crafts in Indonesia. Although no significant research but will predict authors believe the truth, the main purpose for the art of crafting product confirmed in Java in Yogyakarta, usually the main agenda of the buyers of art crafts. Although Jepara as furniture giant in the ability Indonseia extraordinary skills were still to be their goal, but Yogyakarta is not less importance, as well as transit for the region such as Jepara area. Yogyakarata also have the ability to cultivate creativity in furniture that has its own allure, is also a consumer's attraction. Another reason is, when the system is applied in international standardization organization related to management and quality control systems and level of diligence and honesty are owned by many human resource professionals Yogyakarta enough. This is seen by some foreign importers who came to Indonesia, once commented to the author of order completion time limit according to agreement between seller and buyer can be fulfilled in accordance with the agreement, with a variety of accompanying administrative regulations. If corporation by craftsmen in Bali, characteristic system has its own culture, perseverance make the work worth thumbs up, great religious activities, to be contradictory when dealing with a time limit in fulfilling the obligations of a relatively large amount. Generally they work in small scale characteristic of each craftsman, therefore buyers always give the spare time to time by manipulating the target time limit to be met when the religious activities of their time-consuming.
Natural resources are less, not an issue, but how in sting of existing natural processes, by creating a new craft designs that turned out to be material in from outside Yogyakarta. Combines elements of nature more trend with natural crafts, many of which incorporate natural elements not previously considered by the average person but with the creative power of design changes from what was said waste into an art form unique crafts and interesting. It is this tendency to be one option, the potential is quite acceptable in world markets when the issue of the uniqueness of nature becomes an option. Exploration craft form shown through the new design and finishing with a high level of carefulness. The result is a craft object that has exclusive image without leaving the element of uniqueness, traditions, and naturalistic.
As we know that, Yogyakarta has the bags as the center of handicraft art. These centers are in urban and in village. Each region has a handicraft producers in characteristic techniques and materials are also specific to a particular territory. Some of them, it is derived from the predecessor traditional others were developed as part of the creativity of a craftsman who then spread to the neighbors because of the decline of skills in the form of working groups. In a group of leaders and employees, reducing their cross-activities of expertise in working on a unit, then there's the skill distribution. Certainly a craft with a nature center that relies on hand made handicraft reproduce, thereby simultaneously skill was immediately transmitted to other workers in a partnership. Between the craftsman with the level of higher orders and partly as a sub-contract producers. As happened several industrial centers in the area of Yogyakarta, they have used subcontracting as part of their reproductive activity. Industrial centers of art and ceramics Kasongan Pundong art industrial centers in Gamplong weaving crafts, art crafts in the Kota Gedhe silver, batik art in wood crafts Krebet, puppet craft art in Pocong and gendheng and others.
These centers are producing the craft arts have long indeed present as a physical cultural heritage in its territory. Certainly his presence, not only as part of art characteristic certain areas, but it is their livelihood. Economic value as part of their business activities have contributed to the broad as one form of labor-intensive bag. Changes and developments in the business world characterized by advanced craft centers exist, then its extension through the former employees or employees who are bumpy establish new businesses as a new bag is emerging as a new form of business (small and medium enterprises: SMEs ). New bag that comes with the territory at a different cultures with their daily occupations, and then place the cultural assimilation of new craft-making that in the surrounding population that naturally some work on the new bag.

B. Competition
Competition is often ignored by our craftsmen, without the anticipation in the form of a clear step and proportional. It is of course where there is competition, both non-profit activities or activities that profit-making. Competition seems to be important, because the business requires industry to develop competition, encouragement of business promotion has its own advantages. Existing competition would be a trigger to be more creative and innovative, be studied are discussed and illustrated by their management of personal keys. Possibilities that arise as a sign that there is competition, can be coordinated and continued with a concrete step to the anticipation. Of the steps taken are not as destructive part, the problem with problem solving, the problem will experience obstacles when other attempts have been stop.
But what happened, instead of competition some craftsmen still regarded as hostile. If there are business units that produce the same goods with the same quality seen as enemies to watch out for, even not a few disputes that turn into physical fights. In general, the problem is plagiarism design a craftsman who created the craftsmen adapted by others. It is understandable that the position of the transitional society with unclear rules and level of insight that is always get fear, cause sterility in working out the art crafts. In general they only had thinking about plagiarism, limiting the creativity that resulted in the decline of his business. According to the author who was also involved in the field of crafts, understand the hurt, sad, aka annoyed that very sad of plagiarism, was the author also likes to create new designs also experienced plagiarism from competitors author, was originally taste in authors, this situation if but go on to be static, not growing and may be closed, then the opinion of the writer to experiment design and technology in a creative and sustainable. Is not the effort needed competition to improve the quality of business?, Not the design that was created earlier had an early chance, too?, Not in a design patent held tough when every week there were some designs with a bit rate of reproduction?.
In such conditions it is best between business ethics that craftsmen. The need for active in a container that can accommodate this competition issues would be more healthy, there are several containers to talk, discuss, and so forth that frame in Ashepi, Asmindo, Apikri, Dekranas, and so forth. Facilitate organizational policy decisions and solving problems. If communication waking activity, then such things will not happen, when a new breakthrough or a new design has been thrown into the market vulnerable to plagiarism. Of course not easy to give meaning to the famous business units in ways that follow without communicated. Of course if we believe the naughty business units, will eventually collapse by itself. Given a field of any business enterprise would have a circle formed a network of space and scope of its territory. New players, new buyers will be easily known, and the network when it has handle scope.
As is known, that in the era of everything going globalization competitively. The more so because of the rapid development of science and technology, a revolution has occurred ITEK remarkable interrelatedness to competing forms of activities in all lines, especially communication technology to get information and also transformation. Similarly, the level of competition in goods and services businesses as well as more intensive investment. Competition is a very global, unclear information becomes taboo, when the information in the frame of virtual technology, able to present clearly the presence of new products in the circuit of their market activities.
We can easily access the event, we can know which products grow up trend today. In this way of thinking, to become liquid innovation the aspects of the current market trends, and this happens not only on ourselves, but around the world, in a relatively short time that artificial design in Yogyakarta can quickly reproduce in Mexico, so we also easily access the Chinese-made products easily contrived in Yogyakarta, of course, if has been applied in a site in the virtual technology. Actually we should follow the example of China with the high work ethic and support exceptional government, so investors who came to China with easy and simple procedure. Mega Trend in the book mentioned about the Chinese network is not a case of who is part Chinese, but who will join with China. Anyone who wants to invest in this kung fu movie at government very easy stable supported by the security and availability of labor. No wonder that the collision industry with Chinese products is always an issue among our craftsmen. Like a few years ago the Chinese ceramics market in Indonesia to bloom well in mole-mole or supermarkets. It was ravaged our glaze ceramic industry, not a few who later closed.
C. Build Image
Building image is in the handicraft industry is usually associated with the world tourism industry by creating products that feature look like a certain area. Can also be said as a memento of an event or location related to a visit by someone. But in this opportunity to build the image in handicraft business world has shifted to building customer trust, friendly image, image content, image quality and quantity in accordance with the standard consumer. Of course this image is not constructed within the instant, but built from the simple to the extraordinary (major). Given the global market in the trading industry is not an instantaneous visit the project but they sell far continue with aspects of local culture in which the product is made. Look at some souvenirs that are marketed in some other world regions typical local area, it sometimes made by the Chinese. Buying souvenirs in the Arab cloth, it turns out Solo Klewer market products.
Easy it is to say, if the products are made crafts are the best quality and so forth, with the frill-made refuse products neighbors or fellow professional. Image is built not just rhetoric for a moment, not only with promise but needed a real performance and continuation. Proof is in the form of activities that nurture image. How can someone craft arts customers who are also traded on the outside as an intermediary we would have a good selection. That is not excessively optimistic sometimes attract buyers with a humane way in terms of the partnership or business partners. The relationship between "I need you need me" in the present era should done. Improvement in all lines of both external and internal image is built to obtain the trust. Trust becomes a very expensive price of the money to go further in any business world, including handicrafts.

D. Last
World business in crafts arts has economic value outstanding, except that without a clear management there will be a shock-shock. Is not the potential of abundant human resources, and the nature of exotic to be processed. Nature's naked to touch skilled hands for the "magic" into other crafts from the others. Sensitivity natural look to explore the craft objects, which supported the creativity of craftsmen, expected to be our mainstay commodity.
Of course in the writing is far from perfect, the author has a way of looking at a different perspective with elements of art and culture that is often discussed earlier. Sorry ... maybe just a small step of the way of economic approach, as the anticipation of the development period.

Sabtu, 06 Maret 2010

The Valuable Art of Craft

Art craft is one branch of art which has strong roots, the value of high-quality tradition or adhilung value. Because in the past, the palace kriyawan produce works of art with diligence and high-concept philosophy gives legitimacy to the other craft art product first. The concept that includes metaphysical mindset that contain loads of spiritual values, religious, and magical. Collective consciousness of the natural environment, high solidarity and supported by the traditional cultural order that had been producing quality craft art reflects the soul adhiluhung All zaman.1 man's inner life that occurred from the feelings, thoughts, fantasies during the progress of a culture. The soul of this era gives the pop-pop spirit of their work to each soul supporters. Therefore the adhiluhungan his is a work which was measured from the supporters and everyone who audience. Because of the time strata distinguished royal and aristocratic society of commoners, so they have a test (taste) and the different formal and informal people's taboo to have or use products that are similar to what was in the palace yag. Well this is what distinguishes the source region and the emergence of craft art works produced from Jeronbetèng (in court), Jabanbetèng (outside the palace) and even Pesisiran (beach). Of adhiluhung always associated with anything that works in the palace, because it works craft inside the palace has its own legitimacy so that it is the sacred and exalted, so a lot of people think adhiluhung because of the court. Another case with works made by jaban court considered the work of ordinary people who are profane and without a sense of virtue or valuable it was. Adhiluhung purpose today has been different from the existence of the Unitary Republic of Indonesia, not a monarchy again, the Indonesian government to protect the cultural forms rooted tradition that has strong and trademark specific regions or specific areas, which has its own characteristics as part of the artistic tradition , for example, Jepara carving, batik art Yogya-Solo, Dayak motif, kris, and so forth. Artefac that there has its own value of a part of local creativity and the work of craftsmen komonitas which mentradisi be in a royal sphere. Thus adhiluhing also has a work force that has been supported by the community.

The differentiation of the user who craft the products that depend on a user komonitas. The first is craft art made in dedication to the god-king who worked diligently to prosperity and happiness of her life protected by providing / making good work, then the god will be pleased and give peace and joy of life in the world and the hereafter. The second is the user with better economic levels who can appreciate the craft of art became part of their lifestyle will be the trend of art, art must be produced to have high values, even in the present work is collected by the "rich" is incredible value may exceed collection of works owned by the palace. All three users on the middle to lower strata, they are only capable of collecting and appreciating that suit their economic level, so the product must have the ability to adjust his pocket. So the appearance of the palace of fine arts traditions in the past was certainly born out of elements of the class strata of society which is based on castes, caste bendoro, gentleman, and farmer. More bendoro caste in the palace so that the palace has the most honorable place.
Gustami confirm that during the kingdom in Java-product known to the art of craft products in the environment created by the palace with great culture in terms of tradition and art craft Working outside the palace, which is done by people in the countryside is alit culture in a small tradition. Both cultural environment that produces sophisticated products or adhiluhung on the one hand and a simple product on the other side. Artists of the palace called kriyawan and rural artists and pesisiran called pengrajin.14 From the palace, outside the palace and as a region producing pesisiran art products that are considered by its adherents as traditional arts heritage of their ancestors. Therefore adhiluhung value is always associated with a very exalted, so that these values give priority to works of art from the royal palace. The house where the king is regarded as a great lord, and as a patron of the arts by placing pekriyan-pekriyan as court artist who does not have the authority to the work produced. All of the work as an offering to the Gusti which in this case is believed to be the King of Gods incarnation. In pre-Islamic era considered the king penjilmaan god (king-god) or as coming from the gods. Shiva is usually considered to be incarnated in the king, but there are also the kings who considered the incarnation of Lord Vishnu. For example Kertarajasa king (1315 AD) founder of the kingdom that even Majapait statue enshrined in the day-nutrient mix that turned out as an incarnation Lord Vishnu and Shiva. While products art products Jabanbetèng into two classes, classes that are not allowed to manufacture products similar to the work of Jeronbetèng except as ordered items. Related to public confidence, especially Java, the objects are considered meyaingi palace owner would not be able to result in a hard life. This belief will continue in effect as one of the legitimacy of the god-king to his people. Items considered Pesisiran third grade that produces more free work and rough.

Artwork adhiluhung craft that became very special for the court, because this type of craft arts have unique ways of a work created for offerings to the god-king. Value extraordinary devotion that can affect the whole life and death, happiness, passion, prosperity, and so forth. Expression to his god is capable of thrilling the kriyawan to create the best work. Such expressions seem to be present in the creation of contemporary art craft work, although not to his god, but a surge of the soul to bring the work piece to the rank of the spirit craft work.